The Francis Turbine is a reaction turbine. It is the most common turbine in the world, due to its ability to work for a wide range of applications. Its moving part (runner) is a radial impeller.
The turbine has adjustable guide vanes that control the water flow in the turbine. They also direct the water at an angle to the blades of the impeller. Students learn how the guide vane setting affects how the turbine works. The turbine has a clear viewing window and draft tube so that students can see the turbine working.